country, two systems’, this was drawn directly from experiences of being a civilisation state. A nation state never thinks like that.
4.How will China continue its rise to global influence?
You have to recognise that the rise of China has a profound novelty in global terms. For 200 odd years, with the partial exception of Japan, all the dominant countries have been Western. We must recognise that China comes from very different historical and cultural roots to the West.
My argument is that when a country rises, its impact is initially quite basic (poor countries have little appeal). A countryneeds time to work out what it wants to be, what itcan offer and how it sees the world. It’s only with time that it can begin to leave a wider mark on the world.
Although the Chinese government has a strategic culture, it has been so preoccupied with transforming the country out of poverty that it hasn’t been able to give much attention to this until extremely recently. After all, China only started to go global about 15 years ago.
I’m strongly in the view that China will not end up as a Western-style society. I don’t mean that there won’t be things in common, but it will have a very distinctive Chinese character. In fact, I think modernisation in a country can only really succeed if it is essentially indigenous rather than borrowed. Otherwise, its modernisation process will be unsuccessful. Modernisation is not just an economic project, it’s a human project – people have to think it’s their own, not something imported from the US.
5.So what will be the predominant form of Chinese global influence?
The two forms of Chinese influence will be economic and cultural. These will be realised through its two great advantages: cultural richness and a large population. Unlike the UK and US, China has not been a great meddler in other countries’ political affairs. The primary form of Western influence was military power through colonisation and later through military bases by the US.Indeed, the Chinese tributary system was certainly an unequal system, but China did not try to colonise surrounding countries. It was not a particular interferer in governance.I think China will be much more distinctive than people realise.
Economically, China is also going to be much more powerful in the world than the US and UK have ever been because of its huge
马丁•雅克 中国经济 当中国统治世界 菁华专访
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